Background & Introduction: Vaccinia virus is a research tool used in a variety of biomedical applications but it can be a human pathogen. Vaccinia virus is the leading agent of laboratory-acquired poxvirus infections through percutaneous injury; ocular contact; contact with infected animals or aerosols. Laboratory-acquired infections with standard, mutant, or bioengineered forms of vaccinia virus have occurred, even in previously vaccinated persons. Use of attenuated vaccinia strains can reduce risk.
Highly Attenuated Vaccinia Strains: Strains that are highly attenuated (see table below) are typically unable to replicate or replicate poorly in human cells. Vaccination is not recommended for laboratory experiments with highly attenuated vaccinia strains so long as no other orthopox viruses are in use.
|Highly Attenuated Vaccinia Strain||Biosafety Level||Derived from:||Vaccination Recommended?|
|MVA||2||Vaccinia virus (Ankara)||No|
|NYVAC||1||Vaccinia virus (Copenhagen)||No|
Non-Highly Attenuated Vaccinia Strains: A vaccinia strain is considered non-highly attenuated if the virus maintains its capacity to replicate productively in mammalian cells (see the table below); pre-exposure vaccination can prevent or minimize the impact of accidental laboratory exposure. The CDC recommends vaccination every 10 years for laboratory workers in the United States who have any contact with non-highly attenuated vaccinia strains. However, individuals who are pregnant; breastfeeding; have skin conditions such as eczema or atopic dermatitis; or those with altered immune systems are at increased risk from the vaccine, and should not be vaccinated.
|Non-Highly Attenuated Vaccinia Strain||Biosafety Level||Vaccination Recommended?|
|WR (Western Reserve, mouse neuroadapted derivative)||2||Yes|
|NYCBOH (New York City Board of Health)||2||Yes|
|Temple of Heaven||2||Yes|
The use of BSL-2 or ABSL-2 practices and facilities are required for the manipulation of viruses or animals infected with non-highly attenuated strains. In addition to performing procedures inside a certified biological safety cabinet and avoidance of sharps and aerosol generating procedures, the use of double gloves and eye protection is recommended to minimize risk of infection.
Principal Investigators are ultimately responsible for assessing risk and providing a safe laboratory environment at all times. UVA-WorkMed will notify Principal Investigators when medically counseled personnel do not receive vaccination for any reason. In such cases, Principal Investigators are advised to consult with appropriate University resources (e.g. UVA-WorkMed, EHS Biosafety, Human Resources, etc.) for assistance in determining whether to alter or restrict work assignments; enhance safety practices; or prohibit laboratory access in order to maintain the safety of laboratory personnel under his or her supervision.
MacNeil, A., Reynolds, M., Damon, I., 2009. Risks associated with vaccinia virus in the laboratory. Virology 385 1-4.
Cornell University. Cornell University Biosafety Committee Policy and Procedures on Use of Vaccinia Virus and Research Applications. Accessed May 1 2014
Sutter, G., Moss, B., 1992. Nonreplicating vaccinia vector efficiently expreses recombinant genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89 (22), 10847-10851.
Meechan, P.J., Potts, J. (eds) 2020. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), 6th Edition, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules (NIH Guidelines) March 2013
CDC. Vaccinia (Smallpox) Vaccine: Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory (ACIP), 2001. MMWR, 2001; 50 (No. RR-10).